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Rhodiola

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Background & General Info

Commonly known as roseroot, king’s crown, and golden root, Rhodiola rosea botanically belongs to the stonecrop family, Crassulaceae. Out of the nearly 200 known members of the genus Rhodiola, it is actually the most researched species. [1] This perennial flowering plant is enormously treasured as one of the most important medicinal plants in the northern latitudes of Europe and in mountainous Asian regions at high altitudes; [2] it has even earned the moniker “arctic root” due to its growth at elevated altitudes of the Arctic. [1]



Botany

Rhodiola rosea grows to a height of 10–35 cm and has numerous erect stems that develop from a short, scaly rootstock. From July to August, this dioecious plant bears yellow flowers whose corolla is regular and actinomorphic; the four petals are about 3.5 mm and 2.5 mm long on staminate and pistillate flowers, respectively, and the 4-lobed yellow calyx is fused. It has thick rhizome that, when cut, exudes a rose-like aroma, [1] hence the genus name Rhodiola, which comes from the Greek word “rhodon” for “rose.” It’s simple, stalkless leaves are arranged alternately, with the lowest leaves arranged like scales, and the stem leaf blades are elliptic–obovate, sharp-tipped, blunt-toothed, flat, glabrous, and slightly fleshy. [3]

History & Traditional Use

For several centuries, Rhodiola rosea has been valued as a flowering therapeutic plant in most traditional medicinal systems of Europe, Asia, Scandinavia, and Russia where it is commonly used to stimulate the nervous system, boost both physical and mental performance, improve resistance to high-altitude sickness, and take care of fatigue, psychological stress, and depression. [1] The Mongolians have employed the plant as remedy for cancer and tuberculosis, whereas the Vikings use it to boost their endurance and physical strength. In Siberia, Rhodiola rosea is offered as a gift that increases fertility among newlyweds and, like the Siberian ginseng, its roots are traditionally used as a tonic, psychostimulant, and stress suppressor in several regions of Russia and some Scandinavian countries, as well as an antidepressant and anti-inflammatory folk medicine. [4][5][6] They have even been used as a food and hair wash in Norway. [5]

General Herbal Uses

Because of an abundance of a variety of biologically active phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids, the roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea possess several scientifically documented pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects, [2] and are medicinally prepared as infusions, decoctions, and fluid and dry extracts. [6] The Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract, produced through extraction of Rhodiola rosea L. with 40% (v/v) ethanol in a ratio of 1:1, is registered in Russian Federation as a medicinal adaptogenic product fit for human consumption under Reg. No. 75/933/14. [6] The preparation is indicated as treatment of somatic and infectious diseases and psychiatric and neurological conditions and is generally used to improve memory function and physical potential. [6]



Constituents/Active Components

Around 140 compounds have been isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea, and these include, among others, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides, flavonoids, flavonolignans, proanthocyanidins, and gallic acid derivatives. [7] A number of intensive Russian studies detected salidroside (a hydroxyphenethyl glucoside) and phenylpropanoids such as rosarin, rosavin, and rosin in the roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea, which are all considered pharmacologically active antioxidants and neurostimulants. Rosiridin, a chiefly stimulating monoterpene, has also been isolated. [4] Russian pharmacopoeias stipulate a raw material content of not less than 0.8% of salidroside, and in clinical research, Rhodiola rosea extracts are typically standardized to around 3% of rosavin and 0.8–1% of salidroside owing to the 3:1 naturally occurring ratio of these compounds. [6]

Utilizing solid-phase extraction in conjunction with thin-layer chromatography, amounts of salidroside, rosavin, rosarin, and rosin have been determined in different extracts, as illustrated in the table below. L40 and L70 were extracts acquired from Lithuanian Rhodiola rosea using 40% or 70% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, whereas extracts R40 and R70 are from Rhodiola rosea native in Altai region (Russian Federation) using 40% or 70% ethanol (v/v), respectively. [6]

Rhodiola Compounds

It is essential to note that salidroside, rosavins, and p-tyrosol appear to be accountable for the favorable effects of Rhodiola rosea in the management of depression, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. [2]

Medicinal/Scientific Research

Adaptogenic And Ergogenic

Recent research has focused on the therapeutic potential of Rhodiola rosea as an adaptogen that, in normal doses, nonspecifically aids the body to adapt to or counteract adverse physical, chemical, and biological stressors and exerts a normalizing physiologic influence on bodily processes. [5] The first Rhodiola products in fact were marketed as adaptogens when they were introduced to the Western world some decades ago. [4] The biologically active components of Rhodiola rosea such as salidroside, rosin, rosavin, rosarin, and tyrosol improve the overall resistance of the cells—and the organism itself as a whole—against detrimental outer influence. [8] In a number of studies on isolated organs, tissues, cells, and enzymes, adaptogenic effects such as neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antifatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, and CNS-stimulating activities have been found for various Rhodiola preparations. [7] Rhodiola rosea is also considered an ergogenic aid or an athletic physical and mental performance-enhancing herb, which is occasionally indicated for performance improvement, fatigue reduction, and alleviation of depression symptoms. [5]

Panossian and Wagner (2005) compared the adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis (five-flavor berry), and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) and found Rhodiola rosea to be the most active among the three, which all efficiently increase mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. Within 30 minutes of administration, a single dose of Rhodiola rosea produced a sympathoadrenal system-mediated stimulating effect that lasted for at least 4–6 hours. The said single-dose stimulating effect of these three plants has been associated with their respective active principles such as glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds. [9]

Neuroprotective

Root extracts of Rhodiola rosea have been shown to favourably influence neurotransmitter levels and central nervous system activity and to increase the nonspecific resistance of the body. [10] Based on results from numerous studies, Rhodiola rosea deploys its potent neuroprotective property by inhibiting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity in brain tissues and by antagonizing oncogenic p21-activated kinase. [2] Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract at doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/kg for 3 weeks has been demonstrated to reduce cognitive impairment triggered by a bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of 1.5 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Findings from rats sacrificed 3 weeks after the lesion revealed significantly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione levels, accompanied by notable impairments in spatial learning and memory and severe damage to hippocampal neurons due to injected streptozotocin. All of these abnormalities were appreciably improved by Rhodiola rosea extract pretreatment. Such antioxidative and neuroprotective activity of Rhodiola rosea extract against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury, and oxidative stress in animal models can be potentially valuable as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. [11]

Palumbo, Occhiuto, Spadaro, and Circosta (2012) reported the neuroprotective role of a titolated Rhodiola rosea extract in human cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide- and glutamate-induced cell apoptosis through a reduction in intracellular calcium buildup. Maintained in culture, a differentiated human cortical cell line died upon exposure to glutamate or hydrogen peroxide, which served as the oxidative stressors in this study. Such oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity was effectively hindered by a 24-hour pretreatment of a titolated Rhodiola rosea extract, which significantly increased the survival rates of neurons and averted the damage in plasma membranes and the morphological disruption due to glutamate or hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the titolated Rhodiola rosea extract significantly decreased the elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration induced by oxidative stressors. [12]

Endurance Enhancer

A number of scientific investigations have been conducted on the performance-enhancing property of Rhodiola rosea in healthy clinical populations owing to its alleged adaptogenic effect, producing some evidence that proposes the herb’s utility in improving physical performance and easing mental fatigue. [5] A 2011 systematic literature review came up with 11 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials bearing moderate or good methodological quality from six electronic databases (viz., AMED, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science). Six, four, and two of these trials provided evidence on the effectiveness of oral Rhodiola rosea treatment in improving the study participants’ physical performance, mental performance, and mental health condition, respectively. [13]

In a 2009 Chinese study, 4-week treatment of Rhodiola rosea extracts significantly increased swimming performance and, in general, diminished exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in rat models through mechanisms associated with this plant’s reactive oxygen species scavenging capability and improvement of antioxidant defenses. Identified through high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, salidroside, rosin, rosavin, and rosarin were identified in Rhodiola rosea, and as evaluated using a chemiluminescence analyzer, these active constituents displayed dose-dependent O2−*, H2O2, and HOCl scavenging activities. A 90-min swimming exercise was implemented to induce oxidative stress in male Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with 5, 25, and 125 mg/day of Rhodiola rosea extracts in drinking water, which eventually led to an increase in O−* production, especially in the liver, and an increase in the level of plasma malonedialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product. The 4-week Rhodiola rosea extract treatment successfully hampered both O−* production in the blood, liver, and skeletal muscle and any increase in plasma malonedialdehyde concentration due to the swimming exercise. The study results also pointed to an enhanced expression of Mn–superoxide dismutase, CuZn–superoxide dismutase, and catalase in rat livers after 4 weeks of Rhodiola rosea supplementation, particularly at a dose of 125 mg/day. [14]

Based on the findings of Noreen et al. (2013), an acute ingestion of Rhodiola rosea at an oral dose of 3 mg/kg results in a reduction in heart rate response to submaximal exercise and generally enhances one’s endurance exercise performance by decreasing the perception of effort. Aside from endurance exercise performance and perceived exertion, this double-blind, random crossover study also examined the effect of Rhodiola rosea on mood and cognitive function and divided 18 study participants into two groups orally administered either with Rhodiola rosea or with carbohydrate placebo an hour before testing. Compared with placebo (140 ± 17 beats/min), individuals ingesting Rhodiola rosea had significantly decreased heart rate (p = 0.001) during the standardized 10-minute warm-up in the exercise testing (136 ± 17 beats /min). Additionally, those subjects who ingested Rhodiola rosea finished the 6-mile time trial on a bicycle ergometer significantly faster than placebo (p = 0.037), with the experimental group completing this exercise test after 25.4 ± 2.7 minutes and the placebo group, 25.8 ± 3.0 minutes. The rating of perceived exertion, which was measured in this study every 5 minutes during the 6-mile time trial through a 10-point Borg scale, was also considerably lower in the Rhodiola rosea group (6.0 ± 0.9) than the placebo group (6.6 ± 1.0). Calculation of the ratio of perceived exertion rating versus workload revealed an even more evident difference between the Rhodiola rosea group (0.048 ± 0.01) and placebo group (0.057 ± 0.02). [15]

Antifatigue

As an adaptogen, Rhodiola rosea has been reported to increase the availability of energy during an entire day, diminish stressed feelings, boost endurance, and heighten mental alertness. [10] A number of clinical trials confirmed the antifatigue effect of repeated administration of Rhodiola rosea extract, consequently increasing mental performance and ability to concentrate in healthy persons and decreasing burnout among patients with fatigue syndrome. [7] In a 2012 systematic review of randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials from six electronic databases that scrutinized the effectiveness and safety of Rhodiola rosea on physical and mental fatigue, two randomized controlled trials described the use of Rhodiola rosea to be effective against physical fatigue in healthy individuals, whereas the significant efficacy of Rhodiola rosea for mental fatigue was reported by three randomized controlled trials. However, most of these studies have been noted to bear an “unclear” risk of bias. [5]

A 2000 double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study found a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in physical fitness, mental fatigue, and neuromotoric tests of students experiencing stress-related fatigue after repeated low-dose regimen of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract. A significantly better general well-being (p < 0.05) was also reported upon self-assessment. [16]

Stress And Anxiety

Some studies support the traditional medicinal claim of Rhodiola rosea as a reliever of stress-related symptoms, with encouraging research findings concerning its use against mild to moderate depression and generalized anxiety. The pharmacological properties of Rhodiola rosea have been assumed to rely on the plant’s therapeutic ability to modulate the activation of a number of components of the complex stress-response system, and since a reduction in feeding among rodents reflects an experience of both physical and psychological stress, Mattioli and Perfumi (2007) deliberately induced hypophagia in rat models through physical stress triggered by 60 minutes of immobilization, intracerebroventricular injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) at a dose 0.2 μg per rat, intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at a dose of 100 μg/kg, and intraperitoneal administration of fluoxetine at a dose of 8 mg/kg. The findings illustrated a reversal of immobilization- and CRF-induced anorexia as a result of acute administration by gavage of 15 and 20 mg/kg of Rhodiola rosea extract standardized in 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside to male Wistar rats an hour prior to the experiments. Since this Rhodiola rosea extract did not produce a significant decrease in anorectic effects stimulated by both intraperitoneally provided lipopolysaccharide and fluoxetine and did not succeed in modifying the food intake of both freely feeding and food-deprived rats, it seems that the Rhodiola rosea extract selectively diminishes stress-induced anorexia. [17]

The findings from a 2009 investigation robustly demonstrated the effective inhibition of behavioral and physiological alterations in female rats by chronic administration of hydroalcoholic Rhodiola rosea extract standardized in 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside. Such changes had been triggered by prolonged exposure to 6 weeks of stressful events in rats, which have been evidenced to be linked to significant behavioral, endocrinological, and neurobiological changes in human and animal subjects. The hydroalcoholic Rhodiola rosea extract at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg was administered on a daily basis through gavage, and fluoxetine, an antidepressant that reverses disruptions induced by chronic mild stress, was used as a reference treatment at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg. The Rhodiola rosea extract treatment had successfully reversed stress-related behavioral and physiological alterations in rats subjected to chronic mild stress, such as reduced sucrose intake, decreased moving behavior, minimized weight gain, and estrous cycle dysregulation. The behavioral and physiological parameters of non-stressed animals were influenced by neither hydroalcoholic Rhodiola rosea extract nor fluoxetine. [18]

In a 2015 non-placebo-controlled trial, the experimental group receiving 200 mg of Rhodiola rosea L. extract twice daily (1 tablet each before breakfast and lunch) displayed a significant decrease in self-reported anxiety, stress, anger, confusion, and depression at 14 days of treatment, as well as marked improvements in total mood. The trial randomized 80 mildly anxious study participants into either experimental or control groups and involved completion of self-report measures and cognitive tests at four testing sessions for 14 days. [19]

Ten 34–55-year-old study participants treated with a daily dose of 340 mg of Rhodiola rosea extract for 10 weeks manifested significant improvement in generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in a 2008 pilot study, with a decrease in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores resembling that established in clinical trials (t = 3.27, p = 0.01). [20]

Antidepressant

Perfumi and Mattioli (2007) were the first to confirm the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activities of Rhodiola rosea in mice after a single oral administration, suggesting adaptogenic and stimulating effects. In this study, hydroalcohol extract of Rhodiola rosea (standardized to contain 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside) was tested at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg using predictive behavioral tests and animal models. [21]

A 2008 comparative study on the effect of Rhodiola preparations on the behavioral despair of laboratory rats demonstrated the antidepressant-like activity of an extract obtained from Rhodiola rosea roots administered at a dose of 20mg/kg using the Porsolt behavioural despair assay. This antidepressant-like effect of Rhodiola rosea root extract was deemed stronger than those of imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant) given at a dose of 30 mg/kg and of an extract of the antidepressant herb Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) at a dose of 20mg/kg. A dose-dependent increase in swimming time was also observed among rats treated with Rhodiola rosea root extract (ED50 = 7 mg/kg), which contains rhodioloside and tyrosol as its active principles. Rhodioloside, rosavin, rosarin, and rosin were more active than any other components of the extract and worked synergistically. [22]

Van Diermen et al. (2009) linked the potent antidepressant activity of methanol and water extracts from Rhodiola rosea L. roots to their inhibition of monoamine oxidase A and even suggested their application in senile dementia management due to the roots’ suppression of monoamine oxidase B. In a microtiter plate bioassay, high inhibitory activity against the aforementioned monoamine oxidases by both extracts has been observed, with corresponding inhibitions of 92.5% and 84.3% on monoamine oxidase A and 81.8% and 88.9% on monoamine oxidase B for methanol and water extracts, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among all compounds in Rhodiola rosea roots, rosiridin proved to be the most active, with an inhibition over 80% on monoamine oxidase B at a concentration of 10−5 M (pIC50 = 5.38 ± 0.05). [1]

Diabetes

A 2014 Taiwanese study reported the antidiabetic action of Rhodiola rosea water extract, specifically its antihyperglycemic effect, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through a mechanism that increases β-endorphin secretion from the adrenal gland to stimulate opioid μ-receptors. It should be noted that opioid μ-receptors mediate numerous functions of endogenous β-endorphin, including glucose homeostasis regulation. With analysis executed via glucose oxidase method, Rhodiola rosea water extract was found to lower the plasma glucose in 10-week-old male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner—an effect that was reversed by opioid μ-receptor blockade using cyprodime and attenuated in bilateral adrenalectomized rats. As revealed in a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a dose-dependent increase in plasma β-endorphin induced by Rhodiola rosea water extract was also determined. Moreover, an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscles and a significant decrease in the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the liver were observed upon 3-day constant administration of the extract in experimental rats, which were all reversed again by blockade of opioid μ-receptors. [23]

Cardiovascular And Cancer

The biologically active constituents present in the Rhodiola rosea rhizomes, such as salidroside, rosin, rosavin, rosarin, and tyrosol, not only appear to prevent arrhythmias and stress-related conditions of the cardiovascular system due to their antioxidant activities but also can possibly hinder malignant tumor development and metastases in the liver. [8] By inducing and increasing the release of plasma β-endorphin, Rhodiola water extract has been shown to also lower systolic blood pressure and exert dose-dependent antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. [24] The plant’s cardioprotective effect lies in its ability to guard the heart against free radical-associated stress factors that can potentially be injurious to the muscle. [25]

Evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal models has shown that Rhodiola extracts prevent processes related to angiogenesis, or development of new blood vessels, which is vital for invasive tumor growth and progression as an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients is required for the proliferation and metastatic spread of cancer cells. In other words, by inhibiting angiogenesis, Rhodiola extract administration can significantly limit the growth of primary tumors and decrease the probability of their metastasis. [25]

Contraindications, Interactions, And Safety

Up to the present, the use of Rhodiola rosea and its preparations have not been observed to generate side effects or severe adverse events, in contrast to traditional stimulants that cause addiction, tolerance, abuse, and rebound hypersomnolence. [9] The Rhodiola rosea L. extract marketed as Vitano® has been found to present a favorable safety and tolerability profile. [19] Robust pharmacological evidences indicate a lack of interaction between Rhodiola rosea and other drugs, and so far, no serious adverse effects have been reported from clinical trials, making this herb a potentially promising safe herbal remedy. [7]

References:

[1] D. van Diermen, A. Marston, J. Bravo, M. Reist, P.-A. Carrupt and K. Hostettmann, "Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 122, no. 2, p. 397–401, 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168123

[2] S. Nabavi, N. Braidy, I. Orhan, A. Badiee, M. Daglia and S. Nabavi, "Rhodiola rosea L. and Alzheimer's disease: From farm to pharmacy," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 532–539, 2016. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289968949

[3] "Roseroot: Rhodiola rosea," NatureGate, 2016. http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/roseroot

[4] M. Ganzera, Y. Yayla and I. Khan, "Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography," Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) , vol. 49, no. 4, p. 465–467, 2001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11310675

[5] S. Ishaque, L. Shamseer, C. Bukutu and S. Vohra, "Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review," BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, p. 70, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22643043

[6] A. Kučinskaitė, L. Pobłocka-Olech, M. Krauze-Baranowska, M. Sznitowska, A. Savickas and V. Briedis, "Evaluation of biologically active compounds in roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. cultivated in Lithuania," Medicina (Kaunas) , vol. 43, no. 6, p. 487–494, 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17637521

[7] A. Panossian, G. Wikman and J. Sarris, "Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy," Phytomedicine, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 481–493, 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378318

[8] A. Kucinskaite, V. Briedis and A. Savickas, "Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine," Medicina (Kaunas) , vol. 40, no. 7, p. 614–619, 2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15252224

[9] A. Panossian and H. Wagner, "Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 819–838, 2005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16261511

[10] F. Khanum, A. S. Bawa and B. Singh, "Rhodiola rosea: A versatile adaptogen," Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 55–62, 2005. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227507099

[11] Z.-Q. Qu, Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Zeng, Y. Li and P. Chung, "Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects," Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 318–326, 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19950527

[12] D. R. Palumbo, F. Occhiuto, F. Spadaro and C. Circosta, "Rhodiola rosea extract protects human cortical neurons against glutamate and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through reduction in the accumulation of intracellular calcium," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 26, no. 6, p. 878–883, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086763

[13] S. Hung, R. Perry and E. Ernst, "The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials," Phytomedicine, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 235–244, 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21036578

[14] S. Huang, F. Lee, T. Kuo, J. Yang and C. Chien, "Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat," Chinese Journal of Physiology, vol. 52, no. 5, p. 316–324, 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034236

[15] E. Noreen, J. Buckley, S. Lewis, J. Brandauer and K. Stuempfle, "The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance," Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 839–847, 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443221

[16] A. Spasov, G. Wikman, V. Mandrikov, I. Mironova and V. Neumoin, "A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen," Phytomedicine, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 85–89, 2000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839209

[17] L. Mattioli and M. Perfumi, "Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats," Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 7, p. 742–50, 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259204

[18] L. Mattioli, C. Funari and M. Perfumi, "Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats," Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 130–142, 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515456

[19] M. Cropley, A. Banks and J. Boyle, "The effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on anxiety, stress, cognition and other mood symptoms," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 29, no. 12, p. 1934–1939, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502953

[20] A. Bystritsky, L. Kerwin and J. Feusner, "A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)," Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 175–180, 2008. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18307390

[21] M. Perfumi and L. Mattioli, "Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 37–43, 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072830

[22] A. Panossian, N. Nikoyan, N. Ohanyan, et al., "Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats," Phytomedicine, vol. 15, no. 1–2, p. 84–91, 2008. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054474

[23] C. Niu, L. Chen and H. Niu, "Antihyperglycemic action of rhodiola-aqeous extract in type1-like diabetic rats," BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, p. 20, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897963/

[24] W. Lee, H. Chung, Y. Cheng, H. Lin and J. Cheng, "Rhodiola-water extract induces β-endorphin secretion to lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 27, no. 10, p. 1543–1547, 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192943

[25] D. M. Radomska-Leśniewska, P. Skopiński, B. J. Bałan, A. Białoszewska, et al., "Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants," Radomska-Leśniewska, D. M., Skopiński, P., Bałan, B. J., Białoszewska, A., Jóźwiak, J., Rokicki, D., … Hevelke, A. (2015). Angiomodulatory proCentral European Journal of Immunology, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 249–262, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637400/

Article researched and created by Dan Albir for herbs-info.com. © herbs-info.com 2018

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