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Mucuna

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Background & General Info

Mucuna pruriens goes by the common names velvet bean, cowhage, and cowitch and is botanically a member species of the legume family, Fabaceae. In Hindi, it is referred to as “kapikacho” or “kevach” and is deemed the most favored medicinal herb in the Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. [1] It has a wide distribution in tropical and subtropical habitats of America; Africa, especially in Ghana, Nigeria, and Mozambique; and Asia, in particular in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia where the entire plant is prescribed as folk treatment of diabetes and cancer and the seeds have diverse remedial roles in managing Parkinsonism, nervous disorders, atherosclerosis, etc.. [2]



Botany

Mucuna pruriens is a lofty climbing herb characterized by trifoliate lanceolate leaves arranged alternately and young, densely pubescent, slender branches that eventually become glabrous. The petioles are around 2–40 cm long, whereas the leaflets are 4.8–19 cm long and 3.5–16.5 cm broad. [3] The 15–30-cm-long inflorescence is an axillary raceme, with single, two, or three bluish-purple to almost black butterfly-shaped flowers. [3][4][5] The 5–6.3-cm-long fruit is densely covered with rusty or brown stinging hairs, with a longitudinal rib running the length of each valve; [3][4] the thick, leathery pods or legumes somewhat resemble in appearance to violin sound holes and bear around four to six seeds. [5]

History & Traditional Use

Mucuna pruriens had its origins from southern China and eastern India where it used to be commonly cultivated as a green vegetable crop, and in the 18th and 19th centuries, the foothills and lower hills of the eastern Himalayas and Mauritius were clothed with bountiful growths of mucuna as a green vegetable. [5] Ancient Indian systems of medicine such as the Ayurveda and Unani, as well as the traditional Chinese medicinal system, recommend Mucuna pruriens for the improvement of endurance against stress, overall resistance against infections, deceleration of the aging process, and amelioration of male sexual disorders, including psychogenic impotence and idiopathic infertility. [1] Cowhage belongs to one of the most well-accepted medicinal plants in India, to which over 200 indigenous drug formulations have been conceived out of it. [6] Certain ethnic groups in several countries such as Nigeria consume the seeds and pods as human food and use the young leaves as animal feed or fodder because of their high-protein but low-carbohydrate content and excellent micronutrient values. [5][6] Cowhage seeds are also prescribed as a traditional prophylactic oral cure for snakebites. [3][6]

In 1953, Broadbent described the spicules on the pod of Mucuna pruriens and the sensory effects they induce upon epidermal insertion, but inappropriately deduced their itch-inducing feature to be a result of an unknown substance causing histamine release. This was corrected by Shelley and Arthur in 1955 when they isolated mucunain from cowhage and reported it as the major proteinase responsible for the itch sensation. [7]

General Herbal Uses

As a recognized Indian medicinal plant, mucuna, conventionally referred to as Cowitch in traditional Ayurvedic medicinal system, finds applications in the management of numerous conditions and disorders. Its roots are employed as a febrifuge, tonic, and traditional remedy for nephropathy, strangury, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, elephantiasis, dropsy, neuropathy, ulcers, and fever, whereas its leaves are valued as an aphrodisiac, tonic, and medicinal aid for ulcers, inflammation, helminthiasis, cephalalgia, and general debility. Furthermore, mucuna seeds are used in snakebite, sexual debility, cough, tuberculosis, impotence, rheumatic disorders, muscular pain, gonorrhea, sterility, gout, delirium, dysmenorrhea, diabetes, and cancer. [8] All parts of Mucuna pruriens are considered medicinally valuable in remedying bone fractures, cough, dog bites, madness, pain, pleuritis, ringworm infection, snakebites, sores, and syphilis. The seeds, pods, and leaves are recommended as a vermifuge, while the roots are administered in cases of cholera and elephantiasis and also serve as diuretic and purgative. [3] The beans are applied as a paste to absorb the poison from a scorpion sting. [5]



Constituents/Active Components

Preliminary phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract of Mucuna pruriens recognized the abundance of alkaloids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. [8] Mucunine, mucunadine, mucunadinine, prurienidine, and nicotine have been detected in the seeds alone, as well as β-sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin, vernolic acid, and gallic acid. A number of other bioactive substances, including tryptamine, alkylamines, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, cardenolides, and metals, such as magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron, have been identified in Mucuna pruriens too. [1]

Ifemeje (2016) analyzed the nutritional, mineral and vitamin, and phytochemical compositions of fresh Mucuna pruriens leaves following standard procedures. The nutritional composition of Mucuna pruriens is illustrated in the table below, which indicates a high percentage of moisture, crude proteins, and crude fats. [6]

Mucuna Nutrients

Mucuna Micronutrients

Mucuna Compounds

Mucuna L-Dopa

Medicinal/Scientific Research

According to a number of studies, mucuna exerts antiparkinsonian, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiepileptic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, which may be attributed to a wide array of phytochemical constituents isolated from this plant. [8] Diverse preparations from mucuna seeds are conventionally utilized to manage or treat numerous conditions mediated by free radicals and oxidative stress, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, nervous disorders, and male infertility. [1]

Antidepressant

Owing to the broad range of therapeutic applications of mucuna seeds, in particular its role in managing diseases such as Parkinson’s, Rana and Galani (2014) investigated the antidepressant profile and potential dopaminergic-modulating effect of mucuna seeds in a variety of experimental models of depression. To assess antidepressant activity, forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and chronic unpredictable mild stress test were executed in mice orally treated with hydroalcoholic extract of mucuna seeds at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg. In these tests, the characteristic immobility behavior reflects the behavioral despair that corresponds to depression in humans. On the other hand, at the same extract doses, dopaminergic interaction was evaluated through intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) and 2 mg/kg bromocriptine (a dopamine D2 receptor agonist) on the seventh day of mucuna seed treatment. The results indicated a significant dose-dependent decrease in immobility time (p < 0.001) in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test as a result of mucuna seed treatment, whose antidepressant action was considerably inhibited by haloperidol but potentiated by bromocriptine in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Haloperidol causes a significant rise in immobility time, as compared with control, and its administration 30 minutes after the last dose of 7-day mucuna seed treatment resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reversal of anti-immobility action of the said seed extract. As evidenced by a significant increase in sucrose intake of stressed mice, the treatment of mucuna seed extract that lasted for 21 days conferred protection in chronic unpredictable mild stress test. Conclusively, the mucuna seed extract demonstrates a specific antidepressant-like activity in acute and chronic depression models that is possibly mediated by its interaction with the dopaminergic system. [8]

Antiparkinson

Because of the high concentration of L-dopa in mucuna, its powdered form derived from its seeds is clinically used to manage hyperprolactinemia and Parkinson’s disease. [9] The content of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in brain tissues drops when there is a blockade of the conversion process from tyrosine to L-dopa, the precursor of dopamine and hence an essential dopamine source. When L-dopa is made available nonetheless, it can cross through the blood–brain barrier and undergo conversion to dopamine, reinstating neurotransmission. [5] Mucuna pruriens has been demonstrated to exert a distinctly superior antiparkinson activity compared with levodopa in a parkinsonian model of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. In the investigation of Manyam, Dhanasekaran, and Hare (2004), a marked increase in brain mitochondrial complex I activity was observed after administration of Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder, although the total monoamine oxidase activity remained unaffected in vitro. Moreover, the Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder intervention led to a remarkable restoration of endogenous levodopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin content in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats—unlike synthetic levodopa—and, in totality, conferred a neuroprotective effect on degenerating dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It is worthy to mention that nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q-10 have been detected in Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder, both of which have observed therapeutic benefits in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease. [10]

A 2004 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial conclusively noted that a powder formulation from mucuna seeds is more advantageous as a natural L-dopa source than synthetically manufactured L-dopa preparations in the continuing management of Parkinson’s disease due to its faster onset of action and longer “on” time without concomitant increase in dyskinesias. This clinical and pharmacological study compared mucuna preparation (at doses of 15 and 30 g) with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (at a single dose of 200/50 mg) with regard to their antiparkinson effect, tolerability, and L-dopa pharmacokinetic profile and randomly administered both at weekly intervals to eight 50–72-year-old patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease characterized by short L-dopa response and on-period dyskinesias. When compared with the onset of action of standard L-dopa/carbidopa (68.5 min), 34.6 min onset of 30 g mucuna preparation was significantly more rapid (p = 0.021), with shorter latencies to peak L-dopa plasma concentrations. A 19.8% increase in the time from the start of switching “on” to the return to a full “off” state was observed with 30 g mucuna, but this time was 26.6% shorter with 15 g mucuna. The mucuna formulation also had a 21.9% longer mean “on” time and 110% higher peak L-dopa plasma concentrations than L-dopa/carbidopa. [11]

Antidiabetic

Mucuna pruriens has been used since ancient times as a traditional medicinal plant for treating diabetes. A very early study demonstrated the hypoglycemic effect of powdered Mucuna pruriens seeds in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, which is either indirect through stimulation of insulin release or direct, with action similar to that of insulin. In this study, the normal rabbits treated with 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg of Mucuna pruriens powder exhibited notably reduced blood glucose levels, but only at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg did the blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits decline. An intermediate-acting sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent, acetohexamide, was also screened in this study as a reference drug; at a dose of 500 mg/kg, it significantly lowered the blood glucose levels but only in normal rabbits. [12] Similarly, a 2008 investigation verified the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds on normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. With the Mucuna pruriens aqueous extract orally administered at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the findings indicated significantly (p < 0.001) decreased blood glucose levels in normal rats, with an oral glucose load from 127.5 ± 3.2 to 75.6 ± 4.8 mg% 2 hours following extract treatment. Daily oral treatment of Mucuna pruriens aqueous extract for 21 days also resulted in a notably lowered blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats from 240.5 ± 7.2 to 90.6 ± 5.6 mg% (p < 0.001). [13]

Reducing postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of glucose-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase, is among the latest therapeutic approaches in dealing with the challenges posed by diabetes. At a concentration of 10 mg/mL, methanol extract from Mucuna pruriens seeds has been shown to display bioactive properties and to exert alpha glucosidase- and alpha amylase-inhibitory activity in vitro (69% and 87%, respectively). [2]

Employing chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques, Donati et al. (2005) detected quantities of D-chiro-inositol and its two galacto-derivatives, O-α-d-galactopyranosil-(1→2)-d-chiro-inositol (FP1) and O-α-d-galactopyranosil-(1→6)-O-α-d-galactopyranosil-(1→2)-D-chiro-inositol (FP2), in Mucuna pruriens seeds, possibly elucidating their well-established antidiabetic activity. [14] D-chiro-inositol putatively mediates intracellular action of insulin by hastening the dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, which are both rate-limiting enzymes of nonoxidative and oxidative glucose clearance; its administration in different animal and human studies led to accelerated glucose disposal and sensitized insulin action and a linear relationship has been established between the decreased urinary excretion of D-chiro-inositol and the degree of insulin resistance. [15]

Antibacterial

Crude ethanol, methanol, and acetone extracts from Mucuna pruriens leaves have been demonstrated to display mild antimicrobial activity against bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, and Fusarium solani, which is attributed to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals (phenol and tannins) in the plant. [4] Results from the study of Stanley et al. (2014) also validated the antimicrobial property of organic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds screened against common human pathogens. At a concentration of 0.3 g/mL, the Mucuna pruriens extracts inhibited S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, E. coli, as found using a standard method of agar disc diffusion assay. The acetone extract expressed the highest zone of inhibition at 97 mm, whereas the ethanol and aqueous extracts had a zone of inhibition of 6 mm and 4 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both acetone and ethanol extracts against S. aureus and E. coli were 0.0125 and 0.025 g/mL, respectively, but 0.025 and 0.05 g/mL for the aqueous extract. [16]

A 2010 investigation confirmed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens methanol extract against tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and spore-forming fungi, excluding Candida albicans, as determined through agar well diffusion method. [17] Likewise, in the study of Kusuma et al. (2016), methanol extract of Mucuna pruriens subjected to antibacterial assay using agar well diffusion exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with a zone of inhibition of 27 mm. [2]

Male Fertility

The seed powder acquired from Mucuna pruriens has been reported to alleviate ill effects of stress on fertility, boost semen secretion, and function as a restorative and invigorating tonic or aphrodisiac in disorders wherein there is weakness or loss of sexual power. [1] The androgenic activity of a methanol extract obtained from Mucuna pruriens seeds was confirmed by Muthu and Krishnamoorthy (2011) in male albino Wister rats. Provided by gavage to two separate rat groups at doses of 1000 mg/kg body weight and 1500 mg/kg body weight for up to 30 days, the Mucuna pruriens methanol extract was found to have considerably increased (p < 0.05) the relative weight of the testis, seminal vesicle, and prostate; serum and testicular testosterone levels; testicular cholesterol level; protein level in the testis and epididymis; and alkaline phosphatase activity in the epididymis at the end of treatment, as indicated in the performed radioimmunoassay and biochemical analysis. [18]

A 2010 assessment of the therapeutic benefits of Mucuna pruriens in infertile men under psychological stress deduced that Mucuna pruriens reactivates the antioxidant defense system of infertile men, aids in their stress management, and enhances the quality of their semen. This investigation subjected 60 infertile study participants suffering from psychological stress, as indicated by a questionnaire and elevated serum cortisol levels, to oral treatment of Mucuna pruriens seed powder at a dose of 5 g per day. Psychologically stressed men characteristically exhibited decreased sperm count and motility and had elevated serum cortisol and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels, reduced seminal plasma glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, and decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Morphological and biochemical analysis of semen samples of Mucuna pruriens-treated infertile study participants revealed improved sperm count and motility and restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and ascorbic acid levels in seminal plasma. Overall, psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels were notably improved in comparison to age-matched healthy controls. [1]

Singh, Sarkar, Tripathi, and Rajender (2013) spelled out the possible mechanism of action behind the pro-male fertility properties of Mucuna pruriens, specifically its pro-spermatogenic feature, and associated the observed correction of spermatogenic impairment with the L-dopa content of the plant. Their study demonstrated the efficient recovery of ethinyl estradiol-induced spermatogenic loss as a result of Mucuna pruriens treatment in experimental animal models. Such recovery is mediated by a decrease in reactive oxygen species level, reinstallation of mitochondrial membrane potential, regulation of apoptosis, and eventual elevation of number of germ cells. Oxidative stress related to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species adversely influences semen quality and male fertility, but Mucuna pruriens seed powder and seed extract have been documented to effectively relieve stress-mediated compromise in spermatogenesis through mechanisms that maintain the antioxidant level. [19]

Hepatoprotective

A 2014 research published in the Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines ascertained the hepatoprotective activity of a hydroethanolic extract from Mucuna pruriens leaves by improving in vivo antioxidants in antitubercular and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity assays in rats. In this study, the rat group receiving hepatotoxicants, which comprise intraperitoneally injected rifampicin and isoniazid at a dose of 100 mg/kg and orally administered 20% ethanol at a dose of 5 g/kg, exhibited extensively increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and malondialdehyde (MDA), but decreased levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione compared with control. Such hepatotoxicant-induced increase in ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin levels was significantly reversed by Mucuna pruriens hydroethanolic extract treatment. When provided at 200 and 400 mg/kg, this hydroethanolic extract significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the reduction in antioxidant level in vivo, and at 100−400 mg/kg, it lowered the MDA level, compared to the alcohol group. [6]

Snake Venom

A number of studies have scientifically tested and confirmed the protective action of Mucuna pruriens against snake venom poisoning; the seeds in particular are helpful in traditional medicine in preventing the lethal consequences of snakebites, which are mostly elicited by potent neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, cytotoxins, phospholipase A2, and proteases. [5] The study of Guerranti et al. (2001) provided results that explained the biochemical mechanism of Mucuna pruriens seed extract (MP101UJ) in vivo against the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), a poisonous snake species infamous for causing the most cases of deaths from snakebites in the Indian Subcontinent. The saw-scaled viper venom comprises a cocktail of proteins that disturb the coagulation cascade, resulting in severe bleeding and hemorrhage. As determined through clotting and chromogenic assay, MP101UJ increases procoagulant activity. [19] The results from a 2002 study indicated that aqueous extracts from Mucuna pruriens seeds exert their protective and anti-E. carinatus venom activity in mice in vivo through an immunological mechanism. Two 25-kDa and 16-kDa proteins were recognized from the E. carinatus venom, as detected through Western blot analysis, which was executed by using IgG of mice immunized with extract or its partially purified protein fractions; the immunodiffusion assay also revealed at least one epitope common in proteins of E. carinatus venom and cowhage water extract. [20]

Contraindications, Interactions, And Safety

The use of Mucuna pruriens is generally considered safe. Its 1–3-mm spicules lining the young foliage and seedpods however can notoriously cause moderate to intense itchiness upon skin contact. When inserted into the epidermis, these spicules elicit a sensation of itchiness accompanied by burning and stinging pain. A single spicule, according to reports, is enough to bring about pruritic, nociceptive, and dysesthetic sensations that can last for up to 4–10 minutes. [7]

In a 2004 randomized, double-blind crossover trial, one patient dropped out because of short-term vomiting after ingestion of 30 g mucuna preparation, whereas few study participants complained of mild and short-lasting nausea and mild dizziness, but there was an absence in clinical alterations in hematology or biochemistry parameters. [11]

Ahmed et al. (2011) conducted an intracutaneous biological reactivity test to assess the acute systematic and topical toxicities of methanol extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds in albino mice and rabbits, respectively. In experimental mice intravenously treated with 1 mL/20 g body weight of the methanol extract, an absence of mortality, behavioral changes such as ataxia and hypo- or hyperactivity, or any variations in general appearance during the study has been found. In two albino rabbits in which intracutaneous test (extract/blank) was conducted and Mucuna pruriens methanol extract was injected after half an hour, 1–4 hours, and 24 hours, only slight edema was observed as some sort of allergic reaction. Considering the case that no mortality, no adverse behavioral alterations, and no abnormalities were recognized throughout the study, Mucuna pruriens seeds and their extracts prove to be safe for systematic use. Additionally, the Mucuna pruriens extract produced no sign indicative of topical toxicity, except slight edema, in intracutaneous test. [3]

References:

[1] K. Shukla, A. Mahdi, M. Ahmad, S. Jaiswar, et al., "Mucuna pruriens reduces stress and improves the quality of semen in infertile men," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 137–144, 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816389/

[2] S. Kusuma, O. Kumar, L. Narayana, S. Pola and K. Reddy, "In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical, antimicrobial and antidiabetic studies on Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC seeds," International Journal of Bioassays, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 4650–4657, 2016. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304403076

[3] S. Ahmed, B. Qureshi, M. Hasan, I. Azhar and S. W. Ahmed, "Toxicity assessment of Mucuna pruriens Linn seeds," International Research Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 2, no. 11, p. 133–135, 2011. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236941385

[4] A. Ogundare and O. Olorunfemi, "Antimicrobial efficacy of the leaves of Dioclea reflexa, Mucuna pruriens, Ficus asperifolia and Tragia spathulata," Research Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2, p. 392–396, 2007. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289802549

[5] L. R. Lampariello, A. Cortelazzo, R. Guerranti, C. Sticozzi and G. Valacchi, "The magic velvet bean of Mucuna pruriens," , L. R., Cortelazzo, A., Guerranti, R., Sticozzi, C., & Valacchi, G. (2012). Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 331–339, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3942911/

[6] M. B. Obogwu, A. Akindele and O. Adeyemi, "Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) in antitubercular drugs and alcohol models," Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 273–283, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863352

[7] H. H. Andersen, J. P. Elberling and L. Arendt-Nielsen, "Human surrogate models of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch," Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 95, p. 771–777, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26015312

[8] D. Rana and V. Galani, "Dopamine mediated antidepressant effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression," Ayu, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 90–97, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25364207

[9] A. Vaidya, T. Rajagopalan, N. Mankodi, D. Antarkar, P. Tathed, et al., "Treatment of Parkinson’s disease with the cowhage plant—Mucuna pruriens Bak.," Neurology India, vol. 26, p. 171–176, 1978. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/22388314

[10] B. Manyam, M. Dhanasekaran and T. Hare, "Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 9, p. 706–712, 2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15478206

[11] R. Katzenschlager, A. Evans, A. Manson, et al., "Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 12, p. 1672–1677, 2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1738871/pdf/v075p01672.pdf

[12] M. Akhtar, A. Qureshi and J. Iqbal, "Antidiabetic evaluation of Mucuna pruriens, Linn seeds," Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 40, no. 7, p. 147–150, 1990. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2125657

[13] A. Bhaskar, V. Gopalakrishnan and R. Mohandass, "Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats," Fitoterapia, vol. 79, no. 7–8, p. 539–543, 2008. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18672037

[14] D. Donati, L. Lampariello, R. Pagani, R. Guerranti, G. Cinci and E. Marinello, "Antidiabetic oligocyclitols in seeds of Mucuna pruriens," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 1057–1060, 2005. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7399500

[15] J. Larner, "D-chiro-inositol—its functional role in insulin action and its deficit in insulin resistance," International Journal of Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 47–60, 2002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11900279

[16] M. C. Stanley, O. E. Ifeanyi, O. K. Chinedum, et al., "Antimicrobial activities of Mucuna pruriens (Agbara) on some human pathogens," IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 9–13, 2014. http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/Vol9-issue2/Version-7/B09270913.pdf

[17] A. Salau and O. Odeleye, "Antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens on selected bacteria," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 18, 2010. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27797923

[18] K. Muthu and P. Krishnamoorthy, "Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 66, p. 15017–15019, 2011. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286594896

[19] R. Guerranti, J. Aguiyi, E. Errico, R. Pagani and E. Marinello, "Effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on activation of prothrombin by Echis carinatus venom," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 75, no. 2–3, p. 175–180, 2001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297847

[20] R. Guerranti, J. Aguiyi, S. Neri, R. Leoncini, R. Pagani and E. Marinello, "Proteins from Mucuna pruriens and enzymes from Echis carinatus venom: characterization and cross-reactions," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 19, p. 17072–17078, 2002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867642

Article researched and created by Dan Albir for herbs-info.com. © herbs-info.com 2018

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