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Chicory

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Background & General Info

Chicory is an erect moderately woody perennial herb that belongs to Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants exceptionally distributed across the globe. It is scientifically referred to as Cichorium intybus, which reflects the herb’s distinctive botanical features: the genus name Cichorium comes from the Greek word chorion, which means “field” in relation to the occurrence of the plant stands, whereas the species name intybus is partly derived from the Greek word “éntomos,” that is, to cut because of the leaves, and partly from the Latin “in” and “tubus” (in tube) to signify the herb’s hollow stem. [1] Cichorium species are vastly geographically dispersed in the fields of Europe, Mediterranean region and Central Asia, and northern Africa where their leaves and shoots are mixed in salads and vegetable, their young and tender roots are boiled and consumed, and their older roots are roasted, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive or for ethanol production by direct fermentation. [2] Chicory goes by other several monikers, but the most popular ones are bluesailor’s succory, coffee weed, blue sailors, blue daisy, blue dandelion, blue weed, wild bachelor’s buttons, and endive (not to be confused with the “true” endive, Cichorium endivia, which is an utterly different species). [3]

According to national competent authorities, there is only one herbal medicinal product registered and authorized to be marketed in the European Union that contains chicory as the sole ingredient. The product is actually an herbal tea of chicory roots, which has been in the Polish market for 18 years and advertized as an adjuvant in digestive problems and lack of appetite at a recommended dose of 1.5 g, twice daily. Other products are a combination of chicory and other herbs such as Graminis rhizoma, Violae tricoloris herba, Cichorii radix, Urticae folium, Phaseoli pericarpium, and Rhei radi. [1] Tariff and trade data from the 2002 US Department of Commerce reveals an US import of more than 2.3 million kilograms of chicons and 1.9 million kilograms of roasted chicory roots for coffee. [2]



Botany

Chicory is a perennial hardy herb that grows to approximately a meter in height and that can withstand extremes in temperature and torrid and cold climates even during its vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Chicories grow optimally at a temperature of 17–20°C under conditions of sufficient moisture, light, and nutrients throughout the growth process. They are highly adaptable to acidic and alkaline soils, but exorbitant acidity stunts their growth.

It is characterized by its fleshy taproot of up to 75 cm in length, with rhizomes that are light yellow from outside but white from within. The plant has tough, rigid, and spreading hairy stems that clasp large lanceolate basal leaves. It bears bright blue flowers (rarely white or pink) from July to October that are toothed at the ends. When broken, all chicory parts exudate a bitter milky latex. [3]

History & Traditional Use

Chicory boasts a lengthy rich history of medicinal use in folklore. The ancient Egyptians historically grew the herb as a coffee substitute and vegetable crop and occasionally used the plant as animal forage. [2] Other ancient civilizations, particularly the Greeks and Romans, grew chicory as a vegetable crop too 4000 years ago, and ancient writers including Horace, Virgil, Ovid, and Pliny the Elder had mentioned its therapeutic use.

Pharmacognosy texts and handbooks on the documented therapeutic values of chicory had been published as early as 1938. Chicory root had been included in the “Notice to Manufacturers Concerning Marketing Authorization Applications for Plant-Based Medicinal Products,” which is a guideline issued by France’s Ministry of Social Affairs and Solidarity that lists 174 plants and their corresponding parts with approved therapeutic indications. [1] In the 1970s, chicory root was discovered to contain up to 40% inulin, a form of water-soluble dietary fiber that holds a negligible impact on blood sugar and thus is ideal and suitable for diabetics. [4] The high concentrations of inulin in chicory, especially in its roots, ushered decades of immense economic appreciation and popularity for the plant since inulin is a perfect replacement ingredient for sugar and fat in low-fat or fat-free products, such as chocolate, confectionery, cheese, and ice cream dressing, owing to this polysaccharide’s fat creamy form, gelling capacity, and superior body, texture, and mouth feel. [3] Current production of inulin from chicory is at an industrial scale.

General Herbal Uses

Extracts and mixtures from chicory roots and leaves have traditional applications for mild dyspeptic disorders and lack of appetite and are heavily described in different monographs and pharmacopoeias such as the French Pharmacopoeia (7th edition) and the Italian Pharmacopoeia (fifth edition). The tea derived from chicory roots is indicated for digestive disorders and loss of appetite, whereas the roots can be utilized as a tonic, blood purifier, and remedy against internal and external bleeding, stomach catarrh, and jaundice. Decoctions from the root can also be administered as a bitter tonic, mild laxative, and diuretic. [1]

In China, chicory is among those authorized by the Ministry of Health as both a healthcare food and a medicine and is a component or part of the Uighurian and Mongolian traditional medicinal system of northern China, especially its shoots, roots, and seeds. [2] Chinese natural health practitioners regard chicory as a cheap and readily available remedy for diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic liver disease, allergic or infective disease, inflammation, and even cancer. Out of the leaves, stems, and roots of chicories, South Africans make teas for jaundice and syrup to be used as a tonic and purifying medicine for infants, whereas in Afghanistan, the aqueous extract from chicory roots is advised for malaria. [4] In France, chicory root tea serves as a choleretic or cholagogue, as an adjuvant in slimming diets, and as a traditional symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders such as flatulence, slow digestion, belching, and epigastric distension. It is also traditionally used to promote renal and digestive elimination functions. [1] Decoctions prepared from the leaves and roots are traditional cures for high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, and antiarthritic in Italy, while those from the roots alone are given to diabetics in Pakistan. [4]



Constituents/Active Components

Important phytochemicals have been identified throughout chicory plant, but the chief contents exist in the roots. Apart from being a key source of inulin, fructans, polyphenols, and cichoric acid in the food industry, chicories are essentially a factory of various saccharides, organic acids, polyphenols, alkaloid, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, and flavones that possess a broad range of physiological bioactivities and curative effects. [2]

Through high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry, Carazzone et al. (2013) detected phenolic acids and flavonoids from numerous types of chicory variants, including several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives such as eight mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids, three tartaric acid derivatives, thirty-one flavonols and two flavone glycosides, and ten anthocyanins. [5]

The table below from Mona et al. (2009) illustrates the total phenolic content and phenolic compounds (in percentages) of chicory leaf and root extracts, as identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and reveals that the concentration of coumaric acid compounds represents the major phenolic constituents. [6]

Chicory Compounds

Fresh chicory characteristically contains 68% inulin, 14% sucrose, 5% cellulose, 6% protein, 4% ash, and 3% other compounds, while dried ones have around 98% inulin and 2% other compounds. Chicory leaves of chicory are superb sources of phenols, vitamins A and C, and minerals potassium, zinc, copper, calcium, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus. [7]

Medicinal/Scientific Research

Chicory is currently gaining scientific interests not only because of its commendable nutritional values but also due to its therapeutic attributes such as nematicidal, antihepatotoxic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, antiallergic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, immunostimulatory, prebiotic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects. [3]

Cardiovascular

An intake of polyphenols from chicories has been documented in a number of studies to exert antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects and to decrease risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As a coffee substitute, chicory is an abundant caffeine-free source of phenolics, including caffeic acid, which suppresses platelet aggregation in vitro and phenylpyruvate tautomerase enzymatic activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. A 2011 clinical intervention trial involving twenty-seven healthy volunteers who were instructed to consume 300 mL of chicory coffee daily for a week screened the cardiovascular benefits of chicory coffee consumption and found significant improvements in red blood cell deformability and decreased whole blood and plasma viscosity levels, as well as serum MIF levels, after 1 week of drinking. However, there was an absence of change in hematocrit, fibrinogen level, or red blood cell counts and variable effects on platelet aggregation were observed. [8]

Prebiotic And Bifidogenic

Boosting the number of bifidobacteria in the human fecal microflora confers a number of beneficial effects such as protection against pathogenic bacteria and stimulation of immune system development. The GFn-type oligomers and Fn-type inulin hydrolysate from chicory have a prebiotic effect in humans and the consumption of chicory inulin or its partial hydrolysate improves the composition of the human fecal flora by making bifidobacteria numerically predominant. In a 2000 controlled feeding study, fecal samples from eight volunteers who daily consumed 8 g of an Fn-rich product for 5 weeks were collected and analyzed for total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, bacteroides, coliforms, and Clostridium perfringens and the results revealed a selective increase in bifidobacteria (p < 0.01) and a decrease in fecal pH with minimal intestinal discomfort. [9]

Hepatoprotective

The hepatoprotective activity of chicory is one of the most well-documented and thoroughly researched medicinal properties of the plant. Li et al. (2014) confirmed the effective protective role of chicory extract against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rat models. In male Wistar albino rats administered with chicory extract treatment at oral doses of 6, 18, and 54 g/kg per day, a significant hepatoprotective effect, especially at a dose of 54 g/kg per day, was observed, as evidenced by increased glutathione (3.11 ± 0.81) and superoxide dismutase (269.98 ± 33.77) and reduced malondialdehyde (2.76 ± 0.51, p < 0.01) levels in the liver. A reduction of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.01), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.01), hexadecenoic acid (p < 0.01), laminin (p < 0.01), and hydroxyproline (p < 0.01) was identified as well. [10]

Anthelmintic

Williams et al. (2016) provided the first report on the significant anthelmintic activity of forage chicory methanol extracts against swine nematodes Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, which is possibly associated with chicory’s sesquiterpene lactone composition. Methanol extracts from Spadona and Puna II, two chicory cultivars, were compared in this study, and discernible differences were observed between the two with respect to their anthelmintic activities. The methanol extract prepared from Spadona chicories displayed potent activity against the third- and fourth-stage larvae of A. suum and the fourth-stage larvae and adults of O. dentatum; on the other hand, the Puna II extracts exerted little activity against A. suum and no activity on O. dentatum. [11]

Anti-inflammatory

Chicory roots hold anti-inflammatory activity as a result of their inhibition of a range of cytokines, antioxidant effects, and free radical scavenging activity. Anti-inflammatory activity is typically investigated through carrageenan-induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method, and in the study of Rizvi et al. (2014), a significant dose-dependent reduction in paw edema and granuloma formation was identified upon treatment of ethanol and aqueous extracts derived from chicory roots. They had also diminished the serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 levels, significantly attenuated the malonylaldehyde levels, and increased CAT and GPx activities in paw tissue. [12] Cavin et al. (2005) demonstrated that chicory root extract markedly inhibits the production of prostaglandin E(2) in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells treated with TNF-alpha as the pro-inflammatory agent. This study further explained the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of chicory root extract: it considerably suppresses the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expression by TNF-alpha and directly inhibits the activities of the COX enzyme, with particularly higher selectivity for COX-2. Guaianolide 8-deoxylactucin, a sesquiterpene lactone in chicory roots, appeared to be the key inhibitor of COX-2 protein expression. [13]

Antioxidant

Chicory is of enormous medicinal importance due to the presence of phenolic compounds; its leaves alone, for instance, contain a copious amount of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, which exhibit antioxidant activities, owing to the presence of hydroxyl groups in their structures, and hence contribute to the defense system against the free radical-induced oxidative damage. The leaf extract phytochemically screened in the study of Abbas et al. (2015) displayed comparatively low IC50 value for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition (IC50 value, 67.2 ± 2.6 μg/mL) and high contents of magnesium and zinc. This chicory leaf extract has very high flavonoid content (6.82 mg/g of rutin equivalents) and phenolic content (85 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent). Moreover, the leaves have been observed to possess comparatively good reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. [14]

Antibacterial

Water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts purified from chicory were found by Petrovic, Stanojkovic, Comic, and Curcic (2004) to manifest excellent antibacterial activity, with the ethyl acetate extract being the most active. Agrobacterium radiobacter, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been demonstrated to be inhibited by the water chicory extract. [15] As revealed using agar well diffusion assay, antimicrobial screening of aqueous and organic extracts of chicory seeds demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Escherichia coli, with S. aureus being the most sensitive to aqueous extract and having the widest zone of inhibition. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, in contrast, were effective against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. [16]

A 2007 antibacterial evaluation of different root extracts of chicory against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria through in vitro agar well diffusion method evinced excellent inhibitory action of chicory root extracts against Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhi, as well as Micrococcus luteus and E. coli, though at a lesser extent. The hexane and ethyl acetate root extracts of chicory demonstrated more evident inhibition against all tested organisms than chloroform, petroleum ether, and water extracts. The maximum inhibition was detected on B. subtilis (12.3±0.21 mm), S. aureus (9.8±0.03 mm), and E. coli (9.6±0.32 mm), and moderate inhibition was observed on M. luteus (8.0±0.41 mm) and S. typhi (7.5±0.44 mm). [17]

Antimalarial

Aqueous extracts of chicory roots have been shown to contain bitter antimalarial components, namely, lactucin, lactucopicrin, and guaianolide sesquiterpenes, verifying their traditional remedial use for malarial fevers in some parts of Afghanistan. Lactucin and lactucopicrin were demonstrated to entirely inhibit the HB3 clone of strain Honduras-1 of Plasmodium falciparum at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. [18]

Antiobesity

A 2014 Chinese research validated the significant effect of chicory treatment on abdominal obesity using male Sprague-Dawley rats that were randomly assigned into five groups receiving either deionized water, fructose, water, chicory, or fenofibrate (an oral drug for high cholesterol levels). In this study, the normal group displayed higher triglyceride levels and abdominal circumference (p < 0.05) and increased high-density lipoprotein; this is the complete opposite of the experimental groups administered with chicory extract and fenofibrate, which exhibited significantly reduced triglyceride levels (p < 0.05), decreased number of E. coli and Lactobacillus, and elevated number of bifidobacteria. [19]

Antidiabetic

The extract from roasted chicory root, known to contain inulin-type fructans, displays antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and improves bowel movement. A 2015 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study advocated the use of chicory root extract to impede or prevent the early onset of diabetes mellitus and to enhance bowel movements. This study investigated the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants, who were divided into a test group instructed to drink chicory root extract and a placebo group. The test group manifested decreased hemoglobin A1c, significantly improved level of adiponectin, and better visual analog scale score for fecal properties, but there was no significant observed difference in fasting plasma glucose or insulin. [20]

Anticancer

An early 2002 study in rat models acquired significant tumor-inhibitory results against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma from an ethanol extract of chicory roots given at doses of 300 to 700 mg/kg. [21] Hughes and Rowland (2001) supplied further evidence on the cancer-preventive property of chicory fructans in rat models. In their study, eighteen rats were fed with a basal diet, a basal diet with oligofructose (5% w/w), or a basal diet with long chain inulin (5% w/w) for three weeks and were killed a day later for examination. There were significantly more apoptotic cells per crypt in the colon of rats fed with oligofructose (p = 0.049) and long chain inulin (p = 0.017), as compared with those fed with basal diet alone, suggesting protective effects by the fructans at an early stage of cancer onset. [22]

Wound Healing

A 2012 comparative evaluation by Süntar and colleagues detected potent wound healing activity by the methanolic extract of chicory roots, as indicated using in vivo linear incision and circular excision wound models in rats. Among all solvent extracts applied on the same wound models, the dichloromethane subextract was found to be the most active, with β-sitosterol having been determined to be the active compound responsible for the wound healing activity. [23]

Arthritis

Olsen, Branch, Jonnala, Seskar, and Cooper (2010), through a phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalating trial, verified the anti-inflammatory property, safety, and tolerability of a proprietary bioactive extract of chicory root in patients aged over 50 years old and suffering from hip or knee osteoarthritis, emphasizing the potential role of chicory root extract in the management of osteoarthritis. The study involved 40 patients who were assigned to three cohorts and were treated for a month with chicory root extract at an escalating dose of 600 mg/day, 1200 mg/day, and 1800 mg/day. The patient cohort who received the highest dose and completed treatment per protocol exhibited at least 20% improvement in the defined response domains of pain, stiffness, and global assessment and good tolerability to treatment, except for only one patient receiving the highest dose of chicory who discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. [24]

Contraindications, Interactions, And Safety

Based on the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Volume 3, issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and revised as of April 1, 2016, chicory is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use. [25] Very high levels of concentrated sesquiterpene lactones from chicories are said to potentially generate toxic effects; however, the long history of human use of chicories has not been stained with reports of severe toxicity and no clear contraindications and side effects have been documented yet for correct therapeutic dosages. The Commission E warns against hypersensitivity and rare allergic skin reactions and advises patients with bile stones or gallstones to first consult their physicians. [26] A toxicological evaluation of chicory root extract administered orally in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 70, 350, and 1000 mg/kg/day detected no treatment-related toxic or adverse effects from chicory extract. [27]

References:

[1] EMA/HMPC/113041/2010, "Assessment report on Cichorium intybus L., radix," European Medicines Agency/Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, 15 January 2013. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-_HMPC_assessment_report/2013/03/WC500140398.pdf

[2] W. Quanzhen and C. Jian, "Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): A review," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 1966–1977, 2011. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286062437

[3] S. Das, N. Vasudeva and S. Sharma, "Cichorium intybus: A concise report on its ethnomedicinal, botanical, and phytopharmacological aspects," Drug Development and Therapeutics, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 1–12, 2016. http://www.ddtjournal.org/article.asp?issn=2394-6555;year=2016;volume=7;issue=1;spage=1;epage=12;aulast=Das;type=0

[4] R. A. Street, J. Sidana and G. Prinsloo, "Cichorium intybus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, p. 579319, 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24379887

[5] C. Carazzone, D. Mascherpa, G. Gazzani and A. Papetti, "Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry," Food Chemistry, vol. 138, no. 2–3, p. 1062–1071, 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411215

[6] I. Mona, A. Wafaa and A. Elgindy, "Chemical and technological studies on chicory (Cichorium intybus L) and its applications in some functional food," Journal of Advance Agricultural Research (Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha)), vol. 14, no. 3, p. 735–756, 2009. http://education.nu.edu.sa/documents/46892/18591832/%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%AB%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7.pdf/bd2f4253- b68f-4de1-9bc3-9a3690bce325

[7] K. Meehye and H. Shin, "The water-soluble extract of chicory reduces glucose uptake from the perfused jejunum in rats," Journal of Nutrition, vol. 126, no. 9, p. 2236–2242, 1996. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8814212

[8] E. Schumacher, E. Vigh, V. Molnár, P. Kenyeres, et al., "Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 5, p. 744–748, 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21425378

[9] E. Menne and N. Guggenbuhl, "Fn-type chicory inulin hydrolysate has a prebiotic effect in humans," Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 5, p. 1197–1199, 2000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10801918

[10] G.-Y. Li, H.-Y. Gao, J. Huang, J. Lu, J.-K. Gu and J.-H. Wang, "Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L., a traditional Uighur medicine, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats," World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 16, p. 4753–4760, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782629

[11] A. Williams, M. Peña-Espinoza, U. Boas, H. Simonsen, H. Enemark and S. Thamsborg, "Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition," Parasitology, vol. 143, no. 6, p. 770–777, 2016. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/parasitology/article/div-classtitleanthelmintic-activity-of-chicory-span-classitaliccichorium- intybusspan-span-classitalicin-vitrospan-effects-on-swine-nematodes-and-relationship-to-sesquiterpene-lactone-compositiondiv/B5A2815ADB3DF1A72385A858DA5FEB16

[12] W. Rizvi, M. Fayazuddin, S. Shariq, O. Singh, S. Moin, K. Akhtar and A. Kumar, "Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity," Ancient Science of Life, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 44–49, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737610

[13] C. Cavin, M. Delannoy, A. Malnoe, E. Debefve, et al., "Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory extract," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 327, no. 3, p. 742–749, 2005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649409

[14] Z. Abbas, S. Saggu, M. Sakeran, N. Zidan, H. Rehman and A. Ansari, "Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves," Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 322–326, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972754

[15] J. Petrovic, A. Stanojkovic, L. Comic and S. Curcic, "Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus," Fitoterapia, vol. 75, no. 7–8, p. 737–739, 2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567253

[16] T. Shaikh, R. Rub and S. Sasikumar, "Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts," Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878535212000809

[17] S. Nandagopal and B. Ranjitha Kumari, "Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)—a multipurpose medicinal plant," Advances in Biological Research, vol. 1, no. 1–2, p. 17–21, 2007. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239572326

[18] T. Bischoff, C. Kelley, Y. Karchesy, M. Laurantos, P. Nguyen-Dinh and A. Arefi, "Antimalarial activity of lactucin and lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus L.," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2–3, p. 455–457, 2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507374

[19] B. Sun, B. Zhang, Z. Lin, L. Li, H. Wang and J. Zhou, "Chicory extract's influence on gut bacteria of abdominal obesity rat," Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol. 39, no. 11, p. 2081–2085, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272847

[20] M. Nishimura, T. Ohkawara, T. Kanayama, K. Kitagawa, H. Nishimura and J. Nishihira, "Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties," Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 161–167, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151029

[21] B. Hazra, R. Sarkar, S. Bhattacharyya and P. Roy, "Tumour inhibitory activity of chicory root extract against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice," Fitoterapia, vol. 73, no. 7–8, p. 730–733, 2002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12490244

[22] R. Hughes and I. Rowland, "Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon," Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 43–47, 2001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11159739

[23] I. Süntar, E. Küpeli Akkol, H. Keles, E. Yesilada, S. Sarker and T. Baykal, "Comparative evaluation of traditional prescriptions from Cichorium intybus L. for wound healing: stepwise isolation of an active component by in vivo bioassay and its mode of activity," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 143, no. 1, p. 299–309, 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228102109

[24] N. Olsen, V. Branch, G. Jonnala, M. Seskar and M. Cooper, "Phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial of chicory root extract in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee," BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 11, p. 156, 2010. http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2474-11-156

[25] F. a. D. Administration, "Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Volume 3: FOOD AND DRUGS," Department of Health and Human Services, 1 April 2016. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.20

[26] J. A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2002, p. 184. https://archive.org/stream/HandbookOfMedicinalHerbsByJamesA.Duke/HandbookOfMedicinalHerbs_djvu.txt

[27] B. Schmidt, N. Ilic, A. Poulev and I. Raskin, "Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 1131–1139, 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17306431

Article researched and created by Dan Albir for herbs-info.com. © herbs-info.com 2018

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